Gemstones are one of life’s prettiest wonders. They are usually formed when mineral deposits, which are usually found deep beneath the earth’s crust, undergo certain transformation processes (for instance, in the case of diamond formation, pure carbon is usually acted upon by extreme levels of heat and pressure; which lead to the formation of diamond crystals).

Examples of gemstones include; diamond, ruby, emerald, kyanite, alexandrite, carnelian, sapphire, lapis lazuli and many others. All the gemstones in the world are usually distributed within very specific areas and sites.



Some examples of the different gemstones in the world include the following:

  • Diamond

Diamonds are one of the oldest gemstones in the world, and they usually take up to billions of years to form in many cases.

Diamonds are usually formed when pure carbon is exposed to – and acted upon – by extreme forces of heat and pressure, which rearrange the pure carbon atoms into a rigid crystal lattice (or structure). This crystal lattice (or structure) is usually held together by strong covalent forces that do not make it easy for other elements or substances to infiltrate it. On the occasions where this crystal lattice is breached, it usually leads to the presence of inclusions and impurities, which may also include the formation of color.

Generally, diamonds are colorless, white or transparent in nature. However, when certain elements and structures act upon them, colors can arise. One of such elements is nitrogen, which reacts with a diamond’s crystal lattice in order to form the color yellow.

Another such element is boron, which leads to the formation of blue in a diamond’s crystal lattice.

Diamonds are very expensive; however, they are often regarded as a girl’s best friend. This is because they are usually the most desirable gemstones used in the production of engagement and wedding rings. The reasons why diamonds are usually used for such purposes include the fact that they are the hardest known natural materials on earth, as well as the hardest gemstone in the world. Their remarkable hardness makes them very resistant to wear and tear, as well as other forms of corrosion or degradation, which may reduce the quality of gemstones over time. This remarkable hardness is also why they are traditionally used to represent long-lasting and abiding love.

  • Ruby

Rubies are precious stones that are famous for their remarkable red color, which ranges pink or pinkish red to crimson (or a blood-red hue). They are a variant of corundum; a type of mineral that also happens to be the main raw material for the formation of sapphires.

For many thousands of years, rubies have been used prominently in the making of a lot of traditional jewelry pieces like popular crowns for ancient royalty, and valuable generational heirlooms for prominent families.

The name ruby is said to have been derived from Latin, and its formation can be attributed to the presence of the elements like chromium.

Rubies are one of the most expensive gemstones in the world, and they are usually worth a considerable amount of money per unit, based on their quality and purity. In the cultural sphere, rubies are regarded as very good gifts for lovers; as their red color usually represents passion. Therefore, the gem is said to improve passionate or romantic love in the lives of those that wear it or keep it around them. Rubies are also said to bring about good luck in the life of those that wear it. Rubies are the birthstone for July.

  • Emerald

Emeralds are famous green gemstones that are very valuable and highly desirable in the jewelry industry across the world. This demand is especially notable when they are of very high quality; i.e. when a particular emerald sample is of remarkable clarity, clear and intense color, precise and accurate cuts and notable weight (which is usually measured in terms of carat).

Emeralds are a valuable variant of beryl, which are formed naturally when beryl is exposed to traces of vanadium or chromium, and culturally, they are said to attract patience, balance, domestic bliss, harmony and friendship into the lives of those who wear them in the form of rings, necklaces, bracelets and other jewelry pieces.

Emeralds are the birthstone of the month of May.

  • Sapphire

Sapphires are precious blue gems that are renowned for their brilliant blue color. They are actually a form of the mineral known as corundum. They are said to represent wisdom and royalty, and this might be because they have been used for making many illustrious ancient crowns.

One interesting thing about sapphires is the fact that it is made from the same raw material that produces rubies in nature (i.e. corundum).

Sapphires can be found naturally, but they can also be manufactured or grown in laboratories, with the right materials and processes. They are the birthstone for the month of September.


All the different gemstones in the world are not all usually found in the same place at the same point in time. This is because it is highly improbably for all the raw materials, necessary for the formation of all the gemstones in the world, to be available in the same place at the same time.

Some places, however, are widely known for being suitable places to mine certain gemstones; Australia is one of such places. This country and continent is well known for the mining of gemstones such as opals, diamonds, rubies, sapphires, emeralds, jade and topaz. Many of them are colorful gems that can be found in only few places in the world.

Opal, however, happens to be the most popular colorful gem that Australia is well known for mining. The country/continent produces about 90 percent of all the opal mined in the world, and for a while now – since 1930, basically – it has been known to hold some sort of monopoly when it comes to opal production.

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